Question: Is the Hudson Bay a crater?

Earth bears the scars of twin-asteroid impacts: the Clearwater Lakes near Hudson Bay in Canada, for instance, are really twin craters that formed about 290 million years ago.

Is Hudsons Bay an impact crater?

The Hudson Bay (Nastapoka) Arc takes a great bite out of the east coast of Hudson Bay. This image documenting the depth of the Hudson Bay probably confirms that the Nastapoka Arc is NOT IMPACT related.

What formed Hudson Bay?

Hudson Bay occupies the southernmost portion of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, a depression in the Canadian Shield formed during the Pleistocene epoch by the weight of the continental ice sheet. As the ice retreated, the region was flooded by the sea, and sediments were deposited in it.

Is Hudson Bay an ocean?

Hudson Bay is often considered part of the Arctic Ocean: the International Hydrographic Organization, in its 2002 working draft of Limits of Oceans and Seas, defined Hudson Bay, with its outlet extending from 62.5 to 66.5 degrees north (just a few miles south of the Arctic Circle) as being part of the Arctic Ocean, ...

Did a meteor create Hudson Bay?

Earth bears the scars of twin-asteroid impacts: the Clearwater Lakes near Hudson Bay in Canada, for instance, are really twin craters that formed about 290 million years ago.

Is there a crater in Antarctica?

Evidence of 2,000km-wide asteroid impact crater in Antarctica discovered. Scientists recovered extra-terrestrial particles on the summit of Walnumfjellet within the Sør Rondane Mountains in east Antarctica.

Are there sharks in Hudson Bay?

There have been reports of them in the Hudson. From time to time you see seals in the Hudson as well, Brian Kotsol added. Saltwater is not the only turf for a shark.... its been reported of sharks swimming up to 100 miles up rivers for a long time. Bull sharks have been reported in the past swimming in the Hudson.

Does Hudson Bay ship to USA?

Using a package forwarder, you can ship Hudsons Bay internationally to any country or region in the world including Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, ...

Are there impact craters in the ocean?

While larger craters formed by impact have been found on land, this is the first time such a scar has been discovered beneath the oceans that cover 70 percent of the Earths surface, the geologists said.

Is meteorite radioactive?

Are meteorites radioactive? No. Meteorites do contain radioactive elements, but not significantly more than any ordinary terrestrial rock.

Is there life in Lake Vostok?

The embayment contained the most biological activity with the largest number of species Identified. After two years of computer analysis, the final results reveal that Vostok Lake contains a diverse set of microbes, as well as some multicellular organisms.

What is wrong with the Hudson River?

Other ongoing pollution problems affecting the river include: accidental sewage discharges, urban runoff, heavy metals, furans, dioxin, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Numerous factories that once lined the Hudson River poured garbage and industrial waste directly into the river.

Is Hudson Bay fresh water or salt?

While it is a saltwater or brackish body, Hud- son Bay receives freshwater inflow at an annual volume of some 170 cubic miles (700 cubic kilo- meters); even more comes from precipitation and ice melt. Consequently, and also due to its limited hydraulic exchange with the Atlantic, the bay is less salty than the ocean.

How large is the Hudson Bay?

1.23 million km² Hudson Bay/Area

Which asteroid will hit Earth?

On average, an asteroid the size of Apophis (370 metres) is expected to impact Earth once in about 80,000 years....99942 Apophis.Model of 99942 Apophiss shape, assuming the entire surface is of a similar composition.DiscoveryDiscovered byRoy A. Tucker David J. Tholen Fabrizio Bernardi39 more rows

How big an asteroid would destroy the Earth?

10 to 14 km From the amount and distribution of iridium present in the 65-million-year-old iridium layer, the Alvarez team later estimated that an asteroid of 10 to 14 km (6 to 9 mi) must have collided with Earth.

No meteorite component has been detected in the Clearwater West melt rocks Reimold et al 1981. Dence et al 1967 Clearwater West impact crater left and right. Schematic cross-section through the Clearwater East and Clearwater West impact structures, highlighting the difference in the erosional levels of the two craters.

Dashed black line corresponds to the present-day surface. The Ar-Ar dates obtained from four different melt samples across the melt sheet favor an Ordovician age for the East Clearwater Lake impact and impact-induced hydrothermal overprint The magnetization of rocks. The magnetic poles of the Earth are not fixed, and pole reversals have occurred many times in the past. As a rock sample ages, the radiometric isotope decays into more and more daughter products. Measuring the ratio of the original isotope to the daughter products can yield the age of the sample.

This superchron, known as the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron, lasted from 316 to 265 million years ago, which agrees with the age found by the argon dating.

The rocks from the East Lake tell a different story. They have a number of different magnetic polarizations, which indicate viscous remnant magnetization. This is magnetization that is acquired slowly over a long period of time. The more complex magnetic history points to the rocks being much older than the West Lake, as they have had more time to be altered. Not only were the plagioclase clasts included in the vein the same composition of the host rock but they also exhibit the undulatory extinction and shock deformation twinning seen in the plagioclase that comprise the host rock.

Osinski et al 2015 R. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 2015 Yours truly with fellow crater explorer, Dr. His work synthesizes field, remote sensing, and laboratory observations with a range of geochemical data. His current research falls into three main areas: planetary geology, astrobiology, and economic geology.

Meteorite impact craters provide a common cross-cutting theme. He approaches planetary geology with the fundamental view that interpretations of other planetary bodies must begin by using Is the Is the Hudson Bay a crater? Bay a crater? Earth as a reference and fieldwork forms the basis for much of his research. His latest Is the Hudson Bay a crater?

is on theTunnunik Impact Structure.

Is the Hudson Bay a crater?

There is evidence that the asteroid that formed the East crated impacted a marine environment, which would place the impact during the Ordovician period.

The West crater was created in Is Is the Hudson Bay a crater? Hudson Bay a crater? Permian period and impacted the landmass Pangaea.

Credit: Reprinted from Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, in press, Schmieder, M. Copyright 2014with permission from Elsevier. Abstract: For 50 years, the two Clearwater Lake impact structures in Québec have been considered as a typical crater doublet formed by the impact of a binary asteroid. Schwarz, Mario Trieloff, Eric Tohver, Elmar Buchner, Jens Hopp and Gordon R. Osinski Abstract — The two Clearwater Lake impact structures Québec, Canada are generally interpreted as a crater doublet formed by the impact of a binary asteroid.

Here, arguments are presented that raise important questions about the proposed double impact scenario. Although individually weakly robust, age spectra corrected for the trapped argon component and inverse isochron plots for the East Clearwater melt rocks consistently yielded apparent ages around ~460—470 Ma.

No Permian signal was found in either of these melt aliquots. Moreover, the Clearwater impact structures are characterized by different natural remanent magnetizations testifying to separate geologic histories, an effect unexpected in the case of a Permian double impact. No resolvable impactor contamination has so far been detected in the West Clearwater impact melt rocks, whereas East Clearwater carries a distinct ordinary possibly L- chondritic impactor signature in its melt rocks.

East Clearwater Lake might thus represent one among a long list of Ordovician impact structures in North America and northern Europe that were presumably generated in response to the L-chondrite asteroid breakup event ~470 Ma ago. Paleogeographic reconstructions show that the Ordovician East Clearwater impact probably occurred in a near-coastal to shallow marine setting, while the Permian West Clearwater impact hit continental Pangaea.

The new results for the Clearwater Lake impact structures have major implications for the reliable identification of doublet impact craters and the rate of binary asteroid impacts on Earth and on other planetary bodies in the inner Solar System. Walter Abstract — Glass from the West Clearwater Lake hypervelocity impact crater contains numerous spheroids, 10 to 500 μm across, which appear to have formed at high temperatures as fluids immiscible in the enclosing melt.

The spheroids are distinguished from small, normal, largely void gas vesicles, which are also present, by being completely filled in all cases; by having fillings which vary in composition from spheroid to spheroid, even between spheroids in close association; and by indications that the Is the Hudson Bay a crater? fillings are representative of the contents present before the matrix melt chilled.

Most of the spheroids are classified petrographically into three types. Rare, small spheroids are filled with calcite or silica. In a few cases one spheroid encloses another of similar or different type. The close association of spheroids with deformed, embayed lechatelierite inclusions indicates that they formed while the latter were liquid, i.

The preservation of spheroids in the West Clearwater Lake glass is attributed mainly to the position of the glass masses within the breccias lining the crater floor. It is considered that Is the Hudson Bay a crater? glass in this location did not achieve free flight but, as part of a large mass, cooled relatively slowly through the high temperature regime in which the spheroids were generated, and then, when detached, chilled rapidly to preserve a record of this transient stage in their history.

General Area: The Clearwater Lakes lie within the Canadian Shield, close to the treeline. Their circular form contrasts sharply with the linear and irregular lakes in this area of generally low relief. The area has been glaciated. The target rocks are crystalline. Specific Features: Twin craters, formed simultaneously by the impact of an asteroidal pair. The eastern,smaller structure has a submerged central peak. The western, larger structure contains a prominent ring of islands, that are 6-10 km in diameter.

This ring is capped by impact melt rocks. A fracture halo extending out 20-30 km from the structures is visible at low sun angles. The lakes are named after their exceedingly clear water. The quartz grain is about 1. This report was published before any geological studies were performed at the site in order to find impact features. Dence et al 1965 The red dot represents the approximate area of the Clearwater West impact 290 million years ago in the Carboniferous Period.

Continental setting of the northwestern supercontinent Pangaea during the Early Permian, with the larger ~286 Ma West Clearwater West Lake. Ordovician target rocks were affected by the impact and incorporated into the impact breccia lens.

Ungava Bay

The Clearwater Lake Crater pair is situated in crystalline bedrocks of the Canadian Shield. Data is consistent with the eastern and western structures being the result of simultaneous impacts. The size and separation of the two structures rule out the impact of disrupted single body by either atmospheric breakup or fragmentation within the Roche Limit, suggesting that the impacting bodies were a binary pair Melosh et al, 1991.

The islands constitute a central uplifted area and are covered with units of breccias and impact melt. The shore line of the crater contains numerous small islands. The land rises from lake level to a poorly defined ind interrupted rim 5-10 km from the shore. Bathymetry indicates an annular trough between and the ring of islands, with depths of ~50m. The crater is classified generally as a complex meteorite crater with a peak-ring form Grieve 2006.

The ring of islands reflects the eroded centrally uplifted rocks of the original crater and contains impact melt. Impact related lithologies are known only from the island ring and from drill core. Poorly formed shatter cones occur on the island ring but their orientations have not been studied in detail. The metagabbro of the central islands contains maskelynite and planar deformation features in quartz Grieve 2006.

During an expedition to the structures in the winters of 1962-63 and 1963-64, drilling and gravity surveys were performed. Clearwater East had a couple of rain systems covering the south shore of the crater while Clearwater West was almost completely clear.

Fuel constraints prevented a longer stay over the area to wait out the weather. After exploring as long as fuel would allow we Is the Hudson Bay a crater? to the west. In the following images note the vegetation. This image is taken immediately east of Ile Kamiskutanikaw in Clearwater West looking east. Ile Kamiskutanikaw north in the Clearwater West impact crater. We entered the Clearwater West crater from the north east.

Is the Hudson Bay a crater?

This image, looking south, is taken immediately north of Ile Kamiskutanikaw. Is the Hudson Bay a crater? Kamiskutanikaw is the north eastern-most island section of the crater ring.

From this position, in the western ring islands are visible to the right. The southern crater ring is prominent in the near background with the southern crater rim visible in the far background. From here we orbited the ring islands in a counter clockwise direction.

Ile Lepage north in the Clearwater West impact crater. This image, looking south east, is taken immediately north of the mid point of Ile Lepage, the most northern island ring. Ile Kamiskutanikaw is visible just to the east in the mid-left background. The Clearwater East and West common crater rim is visible to the left and the southern ring islands are visible to the right.

We continued flying west along the north coast of this island. The geology on these islands illustrates the impact melt. Ile Lepage north-west in the Clearwater West impact crater.

Scanning right west from the previous illustration, still north of Ile Lepage, is the western-most point of the northern island. Looking southwest from here are Iles Wiskichanikw, the series of small islands that make up the western-most ring feature. We crossed the most northern island at its western-most point.

Is the Hudson Bay a crater?

The western-most point of Ile Lapage in the Clearwater West impact crater. Looking east from the western-most point of Ile Lapage the common crater rim between Clearwater East and West is just visible at the extreme left background.

The circular form of the ring islands is obvious even from this low altitude. We continued south over Iles Wiskichanikw to Ile Atkinson, the southern-most island in the crater ring.

The western-most point of Ile Atkinson in Is the Hudson Bay a crater? Clearwater West impact crater. After flying over the small western islands we explored the southern-most island, Ile Atkinson.

Looking northwest from the western-most point of Ile Atkinson, Iles Wiskichanikw are visible in the left foreground with the northwest crater rim in the far background. Ile Kamiskutanikaw is just visible in the right background. These images give an excellent perspective of the size of this crater.

Ile Atkinson south looking northeast in the Clearwater West impact crater. We travelled east exploring along the south coast of Ile Atkinson. This image is Is the Hudson Bay a crater? looking northeast from the southern point of Ile Atkinson. The eastern point of Ile Atkinson is visible in the foreground, the northern crater rim of Clearwater West is just visible at the upper left, Ile Kamiskutanikaw is in the mid background and the common crater rim between Clearwater East and West is visible at the upper right of the image.

The very short summers, cold winters and extreme isolation puts it in a bit of perspective though! To fully explore these craters unfortunately would take more fuel than my airplane could carry. So, after exploring as long as fuel would Is the Hudson Bay a crater? we departed to the west for the village of Umiujaq. There we would top up our fuel from the containers we carried and continue on south and home.

Gosses Bluff is a Clearwater West impact crater analog. The Clearwater West Crater probably looked like this, pre-erosion. The immediate vicinity of the impact crater is pockmarked by locally derived impact ejecta associated with radial secondary impact crater chains.

The impact and pockmarking is clearly younger than the smooth volcanic plains to the left in this image. Because the major phase of impact cratering in the Solar System is associated with the Great Bombardment that ended at 3. Their close proximity is strictly coincidence.

The Wanapitei impact happened over 1. Their close proximity is strictly coincidence. The Clearwater impacts, shown in this image, are related only by their geological position, recent dating puts the Clearwater East at ~460—470 Ma and Clearwater West impact at 286. There are a pair of craters, Ritter and Sabine, visible on the moon in the south west corner of Mare Tranquillitatis at 2°N latitude 19°E lunar coordinates for Ritter Crater.

Le Goulet gap at Richmond Gulf, Quebec. The gap connects Hudson Bay and the Richmond Gulf, in the background. I just wanted to share this with you. Terik DalyPeter H. Spray; Contrasting meteoritic signatures within the Clearwater East and Clearwater West impact structures: The view from osmium isotopes Elsevier 15 June 2018 Dence, M.

Dence and yours truly at a 2012 Sigma Xi Companions in Research meeting, Ottawa. Dence was prime on Is the Hudson Bay a crater? the Canadian Shield, 1961-81. He was one of the few indiviuals responsible for transforming terrestrial impact crater research into a respectable and scientific discipline of planetary science.

Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, v. Geological Association of Canada, 2006. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 2015 Yours truly with fellow crater explorer, Dr. His work synthesizes field, remote sensing, and laboratory observations with a range of geochemical data. His current research falls into three main areas: planetary geology, astrobiology, and economic geology.

Meteorite impact craters provide a common cross-cutting theme. He approaches planetary geology with the fundamental view that interpretations of other planetary bodies must begin by using the Earth as a reference and fieldwork forms the basis for much of his research. His latest research is on theTunnunik Impact Structure. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v.

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